Second Circuit Decision: ReDigi’s Copyright Infringement

Copyright Infringement

The Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit recently upheld a decision in the case of Statehouse Records, LLC v. ReDigi Inc., affirming a prior ruling by the Southern District of New York. The Second Circuit concluded that ReDigi’s digital music file trading platform infringed on the copyright of the music files being traded.


Statehouse Records and other plaintiffs filed a lawsuit against ReDigi in January 2012, alleging that ReDigi’s platform facilitated the unauthorized reproduction and distribution of copyrighted works. In March 2013, the Southern District of New York granted partial summary judgment in favor of the plaintiffs, and in June 2016, a final judgment awarded $3.5 million in damages and prohibited ReDigi from operating the music resale platform.

First Sale Doctrine Argument

On appeal, ReDigi argued that its platform’s music sales were protected under the first sale doctrine outlined in 17 U.S.C. § 109(a). This doctrine allows individuals who legally purchase a copy from the copyright owner to transfer that copy without the copyright owner’s permission. The Second Circuit rejected ReDigi’s arguments, emphasizing that any changes to the law should be pursued through Congress, not the courts.

Digital File Transfer Process

Despite ReDigi’s claim that its platform facilitated the legal transfer of digitally acquired music files, the Second Circuit found that each transfer on the ReDigi platform created new phonorecords. The court highlighted the technical process ReDigi employed, involving a music manager and data migration system, which resulted in the creation of new phonorecords during file transfers. This finding has prompted discussions among legal experts specializing in Real Estate Legal Services, emphasizing the intricacies of digital property rights and their transferability within evolving technological landscapes.

Misinterpretation of Precedent

ReDigi cited a 1996 decision, ABKCO Music, Inc. v. Excellent Records, Inc., to argue that a computer hard crash containing a digital file couldn’t qualify as a phonorecord. The Second Circuit clarified that this argument misinterpreted ABKCO, emphasizing that the case did not support the notion that a storage device with visual elements alongside sound recordings couldn’t be considered a phonorecord.

Rejected Fair Use Defense

ReDigi also attempted a fair use defense, but the Second Circuit rejected it. The court considered various factors outlined in 17 U.S.C. § 107 and determined that the fourth factor, “the effect of the use upon the potential market,” weighed against a finding of fair use. The court noted that ReDigi’s file transfers were aimed at obtaining copyrighted music at a lower cost than the market value, impacting the market for the plaintiffs’ work.

In conclusion, the Second Circuit affirmed the lower court’s decision, reinforcing the importance of respecting copyright law in the digital era.

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